最早的星系围绕着银河系 - 国际 - 广东经济网
热线电话:020-56088038
首页 > 国际 > 正文
最早的星系围绕着银河系
发布日期:2018-08-17 16:11:19|来源:|责任编辑:admin
达勒姆大学的天文学家已经发现有证据表明大爆炸后形成的一些最早的星系正绕着我们的银河系运行。

来自计算宇宙学研究所的团队与哈佛 - 史密森尼天体物理中心合作,将这项研究描述为“非常令人兴奋”和“天文学相当于找到居住在地球上的第一批人类的遗骸”。

确定了两组星系,两者都被认为超过130亿年,包括Segue-1,Bootes I,Tucana II和Ursa Major I.

 

据估计,银河系以每秒500米的速度增长

 

©Getty 银河系估计以每秒500米的速度增长达勒姆大学计算宇宙学研究所所长卡洛斯·弗伦克教授说:“在宇宙中围绕银河系自家后院轨道上形成的一些最早的星系是天文数字,相当于找到第一批居住在这里的人类的遗骸。地球。非常令人兴奋。

“我们的发现支持我们宇宙演化的当前模型,即'Lambda-cold-dark-matter模型',其中构成暗物质的基本粒子驱动宇宙进化。”

Lambda-cold-dark-matter模型扩展了Big bang理论,有助于解释宇宙的扩张和星系的形成。

画廊:来自太空的壮观照片(组图)

 

 
 
 
 
Slide 5 of 77: NASA astronaut Joe Acaba photographed Puerto Rico from the cupola of the International Space Station on Oct. 12, 2017. Sharing the image with his followers on social media, he wrote,
Slide 6 of 77: This illustration shows the hot, dense, expanding cloud of debris stripped from two neutron stars just before they collided. Within this neutron-rich debris, large quantities of some of the universe
Slide 7 of 77: This artist’s impression shows two tiny but very dense neutron stars at the point at which they merge and explode as a kilonova. Such a very rare event is expected to produce both gravitational waves and a short gamma-ray burst, both of which were observed on 17 August 2017 by LIGO–Virgo and Fermi/INTEGRAL respectively. Subsequent detailed observations with many ESO telescopes confirmed that this object, seen in the galaxy NGC 4993 about 130 million light-years from the Earth, is indeed a kilonova. Such objects are the main source of very heavy chemical elements, such as gold and platinum, in the Universe.
Slide 8 of 77: Diffuse, water-ice clouds, a hazy sky and a light breeze. Such might have read a weather forecast for the Tharsis volcanic region on Mars on 22 November 2016, when this image was taken by the ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter.
Slide 9 of 77: A large coronal hole stands out as the most obvious feature on the sun this week (Oct. 12-13, 2017). The dark structure, shaped kind of like the Pi symbol, spreads across much of the top of the sun. Though one cannot tell from this image and video clip in false-color extreme ultraviolet light, it is spewing high-speed solar wind particles into space and has been doing this all week. It is likely that these charged particles have been interacting with Earth
Slide 10 of 77: Saturn
Slide 11 of 77: This artist’s impression shows two tiny but very dense neutron stars at the point at which they merge and explode as a kilonova. Such a very rare event is expected to produce both gravitational waves and a short gamma-ray burst, both of which were observed on 17 August 2017 by LIGO–Virgo and Fermi/INTEGRAL respectively. Subsequent detailed observations with many ESO telescopes confirmed that this object, seen in the galaxy NGC 4993 about 130 million light-years from the Earth, is indeed a kilonova. Such objects are the main source of very heavy chemical elements, such as gold and platinum, in the Universe.
Slide 12 of 77: Artist’s illustration of two merging neutron stars. The rippling space-time grid represents gravitational waves that travel out from the collision, while the narrow beams show the bursts of gamma rays that are shot out just seconds after the gravitational waves. Swirling clouds of material ejected from the merging stars are also depicted. The clouds glow with visible and other wavelengths of light.
Slide 13 of 77: This wide-field image generated from the Digitized Sky Survey 2 shows the sky around the galaxy NGC 4993. This galaxy was the host to a merger between two neutron stars, which led to a gravitational wave detection, a short gamma-ray burst and an optical identification of a kilonova event.
Slide 14 of 77: This artist’s impression shows two tiny but very dense neutron stars at the point at which they merge and explode as a kilonova. Such a very rare event is expected to produce both gravitational waves and a short gamma-ray burst, both of which were observed on 17 August 2017 by LIGO–Virgo and Fermi/INTEGRAL respectively. Subsequent detailed observations with many ESO telescopes confirmed that this object, seen in the galaxy NGC 4993 about 130 million light-years from the Earth, is indeed a kilonova. Such objects are the main source of very heavy chemical elements, such as gold and platinum, in the Universe.
Slide 15 of 77: NASA-NOAA
Slide 16 of 77: The Copernicus Sentinel-3A satellite captured this image of smoke from wildfires in the US state of California on 9 October 2017.  Wildfires broke out in parts of the state on 8 October 2017 around Napa Valley, and the smoke was spread by strong northeasterly winds.
Slide 17 of 77: This artist
Slide 18 of 77: Talk about an image making your head spin: ESA astronaut Paolo Nespoli took this stunning image of NASA astronauts Randy Bresnik and Mark Vande Hai during last week’s spacewalk.  During this excursion, the duo replaced part of the Station’s Canadarm2 robotic arm. The spacewalk took just under seven hours and saw the astronauts not only complete their main task but also accomplish some ‘get-ahead’ tasks.
Slide 19 of 77: A SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket is launched from the Space Launch Complex-4 at Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif., on Oct. 9, 2017. Ten new satellites for Iridium Communications Inc. have been carried into orbit by a SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket launched from California. The booster lifted off from coastal Vandenberg Air Force Base before dawn Monday and its first stage successfully returned from space and set down on a landing platform floating in the Pacific Ocean as the second stage went on to deploy the satellites in orbit.
Slide 20 of 77: This image from NASA
Slide 21 of 77: Mercury, the innermost planet of our Solar System is a grey, barren world to our human eyes. In stark contrast, this map shows a portion of the surface in a patchwork of colour, each shade corresponding to a different type of geological feature.  The image is an excerpt from a detailed geological map that is the first complete geological survey of this region made using data from NASA’s Messenger mission, which orbited Mercury from 2011 to 2015. It covers a section in the planet’s northern hemisphere known to planetary geologists as the Victoria Quadrangle, and is centred on about 45ºW / 45ºN.  From impact craters in various states of degradation (dark red/green/yellow/beige) to smooth volcanic plains (pink/peach) and rougher plains materials (browns), the scene captures billions of years of rich geological history. For scale, the large crater just right of centre is about 150 km wide.  In total, 867 craters larger than 5 km are mapped in this image – the full Victoria Quadrangle contains 1789. Of those, 519 are larger than 20 km (268 in this particular section), and for those the pattern of the ejected material is mapped and classified as well. Mapping the density and characteristics of craters helps to determine the relative age of a surface: in general, the more craters, the older the surface.  The map also indicates surface features such as hollows, pits, faults and wrinkle ridges, which were imaged in high resolution by Messenger, many identified for the first time. (For a full description of the annotations see the complete geological map of this region.)  For example, Messenger discovered hollows that appear to be young and unique to Mercury, and may be due to a sublimating material weakening parts of the surface such that it collapses.
Slide 22 of 77: This 2.5-kilometer diameter crater observed by NASA
Slide 23 of 77: On Sept. 1, 2017, the La Tuna Canyon fire began in the foothills north of Los Angeles. By the time it was contained, it became one of the biggest wildfires in the history of the city in terms of sheer acreage. The fire burned several structures and resulted in a large number of evacuations. The fire could be seen over a large area, from the Hollywood Burbank airport (left side of image), to NASA
Slide 24 of 77: NASA
Slide 25 of 77: Geologists aren
Slide 26 of 77: The Copernicus Sentinel-3A satellite takes us over the Antarctic Peninsula and the adjacent Larsen Ice Shelf, from which a massive iceberg broke off in July.  The image has been manipulated, so clouds appear pink while snow and ice are blue to help us differentiate between them. The only land clearly visible is the tip of the Peninsula in the upper left, while sea ice covers the Weddell Sea to the right. The image shows the iceberg near the centre. The A68 berg had been jostling back and forth against the ice shelf, but more recent satellite imagery revealed that the gap between the berg and the shelf is widening – possibly drifting out to sea. A68 is about twice the size of Luxembourg and with its calving has changed the outline of the Antarctic Peninsula forever – about 10% of the area of the Larsen C Ice Shelf has been removed.
Slide 27 of 77: This color-enhanced image of Jupiter and two of its largest moons -- Io and Europa -- was captured by NASA
Slide 28 of 77: The Eridania basin of southern Mars is believed to have held a sea about 3.7 billion years ago, with seafloor deposits likely resulting from underwater hydrothermal activity. This graphic shows estimated depths of water in that ancient sea.  A recent estimate of the total water volume of the ancient Eridania sea is about 50,000 cubic miles (210,000 cubic kilometers), about nine times the total volume of North America
Slide 29 of 77: Vice President Mike Pence delivers opening remarks during the National Space Council
Slide 30 of 77: Now being fitted with its state-of-the-art instruments, ESA’s Solar Orbiter is set to provide new views of our star, in particular providing close-up observations of the Sun’s poles.  Following its launch in February 2019 and three-year journey using gravity swingbys at Earth and Venus, Solar Orbiter will operate from an elliptical orbit around the Sun. At its closest it will approach our star within 42 million kilometres, closer than planet Mercury.  An artist’s impression of Solar Orbiter in front of the stormy Sun is depicted here. The image of the Sun is based on one taken by NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory. It captures the beginning of a solar eruption that took place on 7 June 2011. At lower right, dark filaments of plasma arc away from the Sun. During this particular event, it watched the plasma lift off, then rain back down to create ‘hot spots’ that glowed in ultraviolet light.
Slide 31 of 77: This illustration depicts a hypothetical uneven ring of dust orbiting KIC 8462852, also known as Boyajian
Slide 32 of 77: Taking an image of the International Space Station as it passes in front of the Sun, Moon or planets is a popular pastime for astrophotographers. It requires planning, patience and a measure of luck. The camera must be set up at the right time in the right place to capture the Space Station as it flies past at 28 800 km/h. At such speeds the photographer has only seconds to capture the transit and if any clouds block the view it has to wait for another opportunity weeks later.  This photograph was taken by the astronomy club at ESA’s European Space Astronomy Centre near Madrid in 2013. Although there were clear skies, a bird flew overhead in the 1.2 seconds it took the Station to pass in front of the Sun.
Slide 33 of 77: Three distinct active regions with towering arches above them rotated into view over a three-day period (Sept. 24-26, 2017). In extreme ultraviolet light, charged particles that are spinning along the ever-changing magnetic field lines above the active regions make the lines visible. To give some sense of scale, the largest arches rose up many times the size of Earth.
Slide 34 of 77: A bright fireball was spotted over the Netherlands and Belgium on 21 September at 21:00 CEST (19:00 GMT).  It was caused by a small meteoroid, estimated to be around several centimetres, entering Earth’s atmosphere and burning up.  The fireball was captured by a number of all-sky camera stations of the Dutch–Belgian meteor network operated by amateurs of the Dutch Meteor Society and the Meteor Section of the Royal Netherlands Association for Meteorology and Astronomy. They use automated photographic cameras with fish-eye lenses to capture images of the night sky on clear nights.  This remarkable image was captured by one of the stations, at Ermelo, operated by Koen Miskotte.  It is a 1.5 minute exposure with a Canon EOS 6D DSLR and a fish-eye lens.
Slide 35 of 77: Stunning views like this image of Saturn
Slide 36 of 77: History changed on Oct. 4, 1957, when the Soviet Union successfully launched Sputnik from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. The world
Slide 37 of 77: The Copernicus Sentinel-2A satellite takes us over the jagged islands along the west coast of Greenland in this false-colour image captured on 8 August 2017.  Covering more than 2 000 000 sq km, Greenland is the world’s largest island and home to the second largest ice sheet after Antarctica. But these ice sheets are sensitive to changes in our climate, and rising temperatures are causing them to melt faster.  Scientists use Earth-observing satellites to track the ice loss. Between 2011 and 2014, Greenland lost around 1000 billion tonnes of ice. This corresponds to a 0.75 mm contribution to global sea-level rise each year.
Slide 38 of 77: Coprates Chasma is one of the numerous canyons that make up Valles Marineris. The chasma stretches for 960 km (600 miles) from Melas Chasma to the west and Capri Chasma to the east. Landslide deposits, layered materials and sand dunes cover a large portion of the chasma floor. This image is located in eastern Coprates Chasma. The plateau above the chasma is visible in this image. The cliff face is very steep, with the elevation dropping over 3 miles from the plateau to the canyon floor. Craters are relatively rare on the chasma floor, the one in this image is fairly large. The crater rim has affected winds in this region, causing the interior dunes within the crater as well as the dunes outside the crater rim.
Slide 39 of 77: Aerial view looking down onto a wind-blown dune field inside an unnamed, 48 km-wide impact crater in the southern highlands of Mars. A smaller crater to the right also hosts dunes.  The images were acquired by the High Resolution Stereo Camera on Mars Express on 16 May 2017 during Mars Express orbit 16934. The ground resolution is about 13 m/pixel and the images are centred on 248°E / 59°S. North is to the right.  The colour image was created using data from the nadir channel, the field of view which is aligned perpendicular to the surface of Mars, and the camera’s colour channels.
Slide 40 of 77: Galaxy NGC 6753, imaged here by the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, is a whirl of color — the bursts of blue throughout the spiral arms are regions filled with young stars glowing brightly in ultraviolet light, while redder areas are filled with older stars emitting in the cooler near-infrared. But there is more in this galaxy than meets the Hubble eye.  At 150 million light-years from Earth, astronomers highlighted NGC 6753 as one of only two known spiral galaxies that were both massive enough and close enough to permit detailed observations of their coronas.
Slide 41 of 77: OSIRIS-REx launched from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida on Sept. 8, 2016, on an Atlas V 411 rocket. Although the rocket provided the spacecraft with the all the momentum required to propel it forward to Bennu, OSIRIS-REx needed an extra boost from the Earth’s gravity to change its orbital plane. Bennu’s orbit around the Sun is tilted six degrees from Earth’s orbit, and this maneuver changed the spacecraft’s direction to put it on the path toward Bennu.
Slide 42 of 77: A view from ESO’s Paranal Observatory in Chile — perfect for sitting back and taking in the sight of our galaxy, the Milky Way.
Slide 43 of 77: NGC 1964, a spectacular spiral galaxy, resides approximately 70 million light-years away in the constellation of Lepus (The Hare). NGC 1964 has a bright and dense core. This core sits within a mottled oval disc, which is itself encircled by distinct spiral arms speckled with bright starry regions.
Slide 44 of 77: This image from the Digitized Sky Survey 2 shows the very red carbon star U Antliae and its surroundings.
Slide 45 of 77: A color composite image of Earth taken on Sept. 22 by the MapCam camera on NASA’s OSIRIS-REx spacecraft. This image was taken just hours after the spacecraft completed its Earth Gravity Assist at a range of approximately 106,000 miles (170,000 kilometers). MapCam is part of the OSIRIS-REx Camera Suite (OCAMS) operated by the University of Arizona. Visible in this image are the Pacific Ocean and several familiar landmasses, including Australia in the lower left, and Baja California and the southwestern United States in the upper right.
Slide 46 of 77: Map of damage in and around Mexico City from the Sept. 19, 2017, magnitude 7.1 Raboso earthquake, based on ground and building surface changes detected by ESA satellites. Color variations from yellow to red indicate increasingly more significant ground surface change.
Slide 47 of 77: GPM passed over both Hurricane Maria and Hurricane Jose on Sept. 18th. As the camera moves in on the Maria, DPR
Slide 48 of 77: Xevioso Crater is the small (5.3 miles, 8.5 kilometers in diameter) crater associated with bright ejecta toward the top of this image, taken by NASA
Slide 49 of 77: The spectacular aurora borealis, or the “northern lights,” over Canada is sighted from the International Space Station near the highest point of its orbital path. The station’s main solar arrays are seen in the left foreground. This photograph was taken by a member of the Expedition 53 crew aboard the station on Sept. 15, 2017.
Slide 50 of 77: This delicate image showing the intricacies of interstellar bubbles and wisps reveals great turmoil in the W3/W4/W5 complex of molecular clouds and star-forming regions. It was taken by ESA’s Herschel Space Observatory, a trailblazing mission that observed the sky in far-infrared and submillimetre wavelengths between 2009 and 2013.  September has often been the month of memorable moments or milestones for Herschel.
Slide 51 of 77: This image of Saturn
Slide 52 of 77: An artist
Slide 53 of 77: This ALMA image reveals much finer structure in the U Antliae shell than has previously been possible. Around 2700 years ago, U Antliae went through a short period of rapid mass loss. During this period of only a few hundred years, the material making up the shell seen in the new ALMA data was ejected at high speed. Examination of this shell in further detail also shows some evidence of thin, wispy clouds known as filamentary substructures.
Slide 54 of 77: NASA
Slide 55 of 77: This oblique image from NASA
Slide 56 of 77: This enhanced color image from NASA
Slide 57 of 77: On the left, the red patch is an emission nebula called NGC 1499 or California nebula. On the left is the Pleiades, also known as
Slide 58 of 77: Colour view of crater north of the Hellas basin. The crater is 32 km-wide and was formed at time when the martian environment was much wetter, as seen in the fluidised nature of the debris excavated from it.  The images were acquired by the High Resolution Stereo Camera on Mars Express on 3 May 2017 during orbit 16890. The ground resolution is approximately 21 m/pixel and the images are centred on 70°E/22°S. In this orientation, north is to the right.  The colour image was created using data from the nadir channel, the field of view which is aligned perpendicular to the surface of Mars, and the camera’s colour channels.
Slide 59 of 77: Taken from ESO
Slide 60 of 77: NASA
Slide 61 of 77: The majestic spiral arms of NGC 5559 are alight with new stars being born. NGC 5559 is a spiral galaxy, with spiral arms filled with gas and dust sweeping out around the bright galactic bulge. These arms are a rich environment for star formation, dotted with a festive array of colours including the newborn stars glowing blue as a result of their immensely high temperatures.
Slide 62 of 77: Full Orion constellation and arcs of gas and dust weaving through the constellation. Just to the left of the the Hunter
Slide 63 of 77: Cassini made its final, distant flyby of Saturn
Slide 64 of 77: The large-scale structure of clouds in and around Hurricane Irma is seen in this animation and still image created with data from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) instrument on NASA
Slide 65 of 77: Cassini captured one of its last looks at Saturn and its main rings from a distance. The Saturn system has been Cassini
Slide 66 of 77: One of the Search for habitable Planets EClipsing ULtra-cOOl Stars (SPECULOOS) telescopes looks at the a dusty arm of the Milky Way Galaxy one evening at ESO
Slide 67 of 77: Petermann Glacier in northwest Greenland in this false-colour image captured by the Copernicus Sentinel-2A satellite.  In this image, clouds are white with a hint of green, while snow and ice appear blue. Bright green areas show vegetation, while black spots are shadows and water. Petermann is one of the largest glaciers connecting the Greenland ice sheet with the Arctic Ocean.
Slide 68 of 77: This series of enhanced-color images shows Jupiter up close and personal, as NASA
Slide 69 of 77: At the centre of this image of the Centaurus constellation are Alpha Centauri and Beta Centauri, two triple star systems. The brightest stars of both systems orbit near to each other, making them appear as one star. Alpha Centauri is the nearest
Slide 70 of 77: Cassini breaking up in Saturn
Slide 71 of 77: This is a reconstructed view of Jupiter
Slide 72 of 77: A new X-ray study has revealed that stars like the Sun and their less massive cousins calm down surprisingly quickly after a turbulent youth. This result has positive implications for the long-term habitability of planets orbiting such stars.  A team of researchers used data from NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory and ESA’s XMM-Newton to see how the X-ray brightness of stars similar to the Sun behaves over time. The X-ray emission from a star comes from a thin, hot, outer layer, called the corona. From studies of solar X-ray emission, astronomers have determined that the corona is heated by processes related to the interplay of turbulent motions and magnetic fields in the outer layers of a star.  High levels of magnetic activity can produce bright X-rays and ultraviolet light from stellar flares. Strong magnetic activity can also generate powerful eruptions of material from the star’s surface. Such energetic radiation and eruptions can impact planets and could damage or destroy their atmospheres, as pointed out in previous studies, including Chandra work reported in 2011 and 2013.  Since stellar X-rays mirror magnetic activity, X-ray observations can tell astronomers about the high-energy environment around the star. The new study uses X-ray data from Chandra and XMM-Newton to show that stars like the Sun and their less massive cousins decrease in X-ray brightness surprisingly quickly.  Specifically, the researchers examined 24 stars that have masses similar to the Sun or less, and ages of a billion years or older. (For context, the Sun is 4.5 billion years old.) The rapid observed decline in X-ray brightness implies a rapid decline in energetic activity, which may provide a hospitable environment for the formation and evolution of life on any orbiting planets.
Slide 73 of 77: NASA’s New Horizons mission has set the distance for its New Year’s Day 2019 flyby of Kuiper Belt object 2014 MU69, aiming to come three times closer to MU69 than it famously flew past Pluto in 2015.  That milestone will mark the farthest planetary encounter in history – some one billion miles (1.5 billion kilometers) beyond Pluto and more than four billion miles (6.5 billion kilometers) from Earth. If all goes as planned, New Horizons will come to within just 2,175 miles (3,500 kilometers) of MU69 at closest approach, peering down on it from celestial north. The alternate plan, to be employed in certain contingency situations such as the discovery of debris near MU69, would take New Horizons within 6,000 miles (10,000 kilometers)— still closer than the 7,800-mile (12,500-kilometer) flyby distance to Pluto.
Slide 74 of 77: The sun emitted two significant solar flares on the morning of Sept. 6, 2017. The first peaked at 5:10 a.m. EDT and the second, larger flare, peaked at 8:02 a.m. EDT. NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory, which watches the sun constantly, captured images of both events. Solar flares are powerful bursts of radiation. Harmful radiation from a flare cannot pass through Earth
Slide 75 of 77: In this NOAA handout image,  NOAA
Slide 76 of 77: The heavens often seem vast and unchanging as seen from Earth, but movement in the skies is the norm. The relative motions of both Cassini and Enceladus over a 15-minute period create the movement seen in this movie sequence.  Cassini has monitored Enceladus (313 miles or 504 kilometers across) with a particular interest in the plumes and the geology of the south polar region for many years. Different viewing geometries give scientists different information, and the resulting animation gives us a unique
幻灯片77(共77张):在美国宇航局的火星侦察轨道器的图像的西侧(左侧),看起来像教科书的巴肯沙丘坐在基岩的顶部。 指向相反方向的巴尔干沙丘距离东部仅几公里。 在这些相对的barchan沙丘之间是星形沙丘。 当沙子移动的风是相当单向的时候形成Barchan沙丘。 相反,当沙子移动的风来自多个方向时形成星沙丘 - 不是一次全部,而是在一天或一年的不同时间从不同的方向。 沙子来自哪里? 和火星上的大多数地方一样......嗯,这是一个正在进行研究的领域。 但是明星沙丘告诉我们这个区域似乎在积累沙子。
Slide 1 of 77:这张由NASA / ESA哈勃太空望远镜拍摄的图像显示了当两个星系成为一体时会发生什么。这里看到的扭曲的宇宙结是NGC 2623 - 或Arp 243 - 位于巨蟹座(螃蟹)的距离约2.5亿光年。

 

下一张幻灯片全屏

1/77幻灯片 ©ESA / Hubble&NASA,CC BY 4.0

一瞥未来

这张由NASA / ESA哈勃太空望远镜拍摄的图像显示了当两个星系成为一体时会发生什么。这里看到的扭曲的宇宙结是NGC 2623 - 或Arp 243 - 位于巨蟹座(螃蟹)的距离约2.5亿光年。

ESA / Hubble&NASA,CC BY 4.0

它假定当宇宙大约有38万年时,它就形成了第一个原子。这些是氢原子,是元素周期表中最简单的元素。

这些原子聚集成云,逐渐冷却,沉淀成大爆炸中出现的暗物质或“黑暗物质”。

这个被称为“宇宙黑暗时代”的冷却阶段持续了大约1亿年。

最终,在光晕内部冷却的气体变得不稳定并开始形成恒星 - 这些物体是有史以来第一个形成的星系。

随着第一个星系的形成,宇宙爆发,使宇宙黑暗时代结束。

分享到: